Hard Maple
(Sugar Maple, White Hard Maple)

Scientific Name: Acer saccharum

General Description
The sapwood is creamy white with a slight reddish brown tinge and the heartwood varies from light to dark reddish brown.  The amount of darker brown heartwood can vary significantly according to growing region.  Both sapwood and heartwood can contain pith fleck.  The wood has a close fine, uniform texture and is generally straight-grained, but it can also occur as "curly," "fiddleback," and "birds-eye" figure.

Working Properties
Hard Maple dries slowly with high shrinkage, so it can be susceptible to movement in performance.  Pre-boring is recommended when nailing and screwing.  With care it machines well, turns well, glues satisfactorily, and can be stained to an outstanding finish.  Polishes well and is suitable for enamel finishes and brown tones.

Physical Properties
The wood is hard and heavy with good strength properties, in particular its high resistance to abrasion and wear.  It also has good steam bending properties.

Specific Gravity: 0.63 (12% M.C.)
Average Weight: 705 kg/m3 (12% M.C.)
Average Volumetric Shrinkage: 11.9% (Green to 6% M.C.)
Modulus of Elasticity: 12,618 MPa
Hardness: 6450 N

Availability
Widely available, (4 percent of U.S.  hardwoods commercially available).  The higher quality grades of lumber are available selected for white color (sapwood) although this can limit availability.  Figured maple (birds-eye, curly, fiddleback) is generally only available in commercial volumes as veneer.

Main Uses
Flooring, furniture, paneling, ballroom and gymnasium floors, kitchen cabinets, worktops, table tops, butchers blocks, toys, kitchenware and millwork: stairs, handrails, mouldings, and doors.